Summer 2016 Newsletter

Investors Are Human, Too

In 1981, the Nobel Prize-winning economist Robert Shiller published a groundbreaking study that contradicted a prevailing theory that markets are always efficient. If they were, stock prices would generally mirror the growth in earnings and dividends. Shiller’s research showed that stock prices fluctuate more often than changes in companies’ intrinsic valuations (such as dividend yield) would suggest. (1) Shiller concluded that asset prices sometimes move erratically in the short term simply because investor behavior can be influenced by emotions such as greed and fear. Many investors would agree that it’s sometimes difficult to stay calm and act rationally, especially when unexpected events upset the financial markets. Researchers in the field of behavioral finance have studied how cognitive biases in human thinking can affect investor behavior. Understanding the influence of human nature might help you overcome these common psychological traps.

Herd mentality

Individuals may be convinced by their peers to  follow trends, even if it’s not in their own best interests. Shiller proposed that human psychology is the reason that “bubbles” form in asset markets. Investor enthusiasm (“irrational exuberance”) and a herd mentality can create excessive demand for “hot” investments. Investors often chase returns and drive up prices until they become very expensive relative to long-term values. Past performance, however, does not eventually burst. Investors who follow the crowd can harm long-term portfolio returns by fleeing the stock market after it falls and/or waiting too long (until prices have already risen) to reinvest. 

Availability bias

This mental shortcut leads people to base judgments on examples that immediately come to mind, rather than examining alternatives. It may cause you to misperceive the likelihood or frequency of events, in the same way that watching a movie about sharks can make it seem more dangerous to swim in the ocean.

Confirmation bias

People also have a tendency to search out and remember information that confirms, rather than challenges, their current beliefs. If you have a good feeling about a certain investment, you may be likely to ignore critical facts and focus on data that supports your opinion.


Individuals often overestimate their skills, knowledge, and ability to predict probable outcomes. When it comes to investing, overconfidence may cause you to trade excessively and/or downplay potential risks.

Loss aversion

Research shows that investors tend to dislike losses much more than they enjoy gains, so it can actually be painful to deal with financial losses. (2) Consequently, you might avoid selling an investment that would realize a loss even though the sale may be an appropriate course of action. The intense fear of losing money may even be paralyzing. It’s important to slow down the process and try to consider all relevant factors and possible outcomes when making financial decisions. Having a long-term perspective and sticking with a thoughtfully crafted investing strategy may also help you avoid expensive, emotion-driven mistakes.

Note: All investments are subject to market fluctuation, risk, and loss of principal. When sold, investments may be worth more or less than their original cost. (1) The Economist, “What’s Wrong with Finance?” May 1, 2015  (2) The Wall Street Journal, “Why an Economist Plays Powerball,” January 12, 2016



Debt Optimization Strategies

As part of improving your financial situation, you might consider reducing your debt load. A number of strategies can be used to pay off debt. However, before starting any debt payoff strategy (or combination of strategies), be sure you understand the terms of your debts, including interest rates, terms of payment, and any prepayment or other penalties.

Understand minimum payments (a starting point)

You are generally required to make minimum payments on your debts, based on factors set by the lender. Failure to make the minimum payments can result in penalties, increased interest rates, and default. If you make only the minimum payments, it may take a long time to pay off the debt, and you may have to pay large amounts of interest over the life of the loan. This is especially true of credit card debt. Your credit card statement will indicate the amount of your current monthly minimum payment. To find the factors used in calculating the minimum payment amount each month, you need to review terms in your credit card contract. These terms can change over time.

For credit cards, the minimum payment is usually equal to the greater of a minimum percentage multiplied by the card’s balance (plus interest on the balance, in some cases) or a base minimum amount (such as $15). For example, assume you have a credit card with a current balance of $2,000, an interest rate of 18%, a minimum percentage of 2% plus interest, and a base minimum amount of $15. The initial minimum payment required would be $70 [greater of ($2,000 x 2%) + ($2,000 x (18% / 12)) or $15]. If you made only the minimum payments (as recalculated each month), it would take you 114 months (almost 10 years) to pay off the debt, and you would pay total interest of $1,314.

For other types of loans, the minimum payment is generally the same as the regular monthly payment.

Make additional payments

Making payments in addition to your regular or minimum payments can reduce the time it takes to pay off your debt and the total interest paid. The additional payments could be made periodically, such as monthly, quarterly, or annually. For example, if you made monthly payments of $100 on the credit card debt in the previous example (the initial minimum payment was $70), it would take you only 24 months to pay off the debt, and you would pay total interest of just $396. As another example, let’s assume you have a current mortgage balance of $100,000. The interest rate is 5%, the monthly payment is $791, and you have a remaining term of 15 years. If you make regular payments, you will pay total interest of $42,343. However, if you pay an additional $200 each month, it will take you only 11 years to pay off the debt, and you will pay total interest of just $30,022.

Another strategy is to pay one-half of your regular monthly mortgage payment every two weeks. By the end of the year, you will have made 26 payments of one-half the monthly amount, or essentially 13 monthly payments. In other words, you will have made an extra monthly payment for the year. As a result, you will reduce the time payments must be made and the total interest paid.

Pay off highest interest rate debts first

One way to potentially optimize payment of your debt is to first make the minimum payments required for each debt, and then allocate any remaining dollars to the debts with the highest interest rates. For example, let’s assume you have two debts, you owe $10,000 on each, and each has a monthly payment of $200. The interest rate for one debt is 8%; the interest rate for the other is 18%. If you make regular payments, it will take 94 months until both debts are paid off, and you will pay total interest of $10,827. However, if you make monthly payments of $600, with the extra $200 paying off the debt with an 18% interest rate first, it will take only 41 months to pay off the debts, and you will pay total interest
of just $4,457.

Use a debt consolidation loan

If you have multiple debts with high interest rates, it may be possible to pay off those debts with a debt consolidation loan. Typically, this will be a home equity loan with a much lower interest rate than the rates on the debts being consolidated. Furthermore, if you itemize deductions, interest paid on home equity debt of up to $100,000 is generally deductible for income tax purposes, thus reducing the effective interest rate on the debt consolidation loan even further. However, a home equity loan potentially puts your home at risk because it serves as collateral, and the lender could foreclose if you fail to repay. There also may be closing costs and other charges associated with the loan.



Common Financial Wisdom: Theory vs. Practice

In the financial world, there are a lot of rules about what you should be doing. In theory, they sound reasonable. But in practice, it may not be easy, or even possible, to follow them. Let’s look at some common financial maxims and why it can be hard to implement them.

Build an emergency fund worth three to six months of living expenses

Wisdom: Set aside at least three to six months worth of living expenses in an emergency savings account so your overall financial health doesn’t take a hit when an unexpected need arises.
Problem: While you’re trying to save, other needs–both emergencies and non-emergencies–come up that may prevent you from adding to your emergency fund and even cause you to dip into it, resulting in an even greater shortfall. Getting back on track might require many months or years of dedicated contributions, leading you to decrease or possibly stop your contributions to other important goals such as college, retirement, or a down payment on a house.
One solution: Don’t put your overall financial life completely on hold trying to hit the high end of the three to six months target. By all means create an emergency fund, but if after a year or two of diligent saving you’ve amassed only two or three months of reserves, consider that a good base and contribute to your long-term financial health instead, adding small amounts to your emergency fund when possible. Of course, it depends on your own situation. For example, if you’re a business owner in a volatile industry, you may need as much as a year’s worth of savings to carry you through uncertain times.

Start saving for retirement in your 20s

Wisdom: Start saving for retirement when you’re young because time is one of the best advantages when it comes to amassing a nest egg. This is the result of compounding, which is when your retirement contributions earn investment returns, and then those returns produce earnings themselves. Over time, the process can snowball.
Problem: How many 20-somethings have the financial wherewithal to save earnestly for retirement? Student debt is at record levels, and young adults typically need to budget for rent, food, transportation, monthly utilities, and cell phone bills, all while trying to contribute to an emergency fund and a down payment fund.
One solution: Track your monthly income and expenses on a regular basis to see where your money is going. Establish a budget and try to live within your means, or better yet below your means. Then focus on putting money aside in your workplace retirement plan. Start by contributing a small percentage of your pay, say 3%, to get into the retirement savings habit. Once you’ve adjusted to a lower take-home amount in your paycheck (you may not even notice the difference!), consider upping your contribution little by little, such as once a year or whenever you get a raise.

Start saving for college as soon as your child is born

Wisdom: Benjamin Franklin famously said there is nothing certain in life except death and taxes. To this, parents might add college costs that increase every year without fail, no matter what the overall economy is doing. As a result, new parents are often advised to start saving for college right away.
Problem: New parents often face many other financial burdens that come with having a baby; for example, increased medical expenses, baby-related costs, day-care costs, and a reduction in household income as a result of one parent possibly cutting back on work or leaving the workforce altogether.
One solution: Open a savings account and set up automatic monthly contributions in a small, manageable amount–for example, $25 or $50 per month–and add to it when you can. When grandparents and extended family ask what they can give your child for birthdays and holidays, you’ll have a suggestion.

Subtract your age from 100 to determine your stock percentage 

Wisdom: Subtract your age from 100 to determine the percentage of your portfolio that should be in stocks. For example, a 45-year-old would have 55% of his or her portfolio in stocks, with the remainder in bonds and cash.
Problem: A one-size-fits-all rule may not be appropriate for everyone. On the one hand, today’s longer life expectancies make a case for holding even more stocks in your portfolio for their growth potential, and subtracting your age from, say, 120. On the other hand, considering the risks associated with stocks, some investors may not feel comfortable subtracting their age even from 80 to determine the percentage of stocks.
One solution: Focus on your own tolerance for risk while also being mindful of inflation. Consider looking at the historical performance of different asset classes. Can you sleep at night with the investments you’ve chosen? Your own peace of mind trumps any financial rule.



Can I make charitable contributions from my IRA in 2016?

Yes, if you qualify. The law authorizing qualified charitable distributions, or QCDs, has recently been made permanent by the Protecting Americans from Tax Hikes (PATH) Act of 2015.

You simply instruct your IRA trustee to make a distribution directly from your IRA (other than a SEP or SIMPLE) to a qualified charity. You must be 70½ or older, and the distribution must be one that would otherwise be taxable to you. You can exclude up to $100,000 of QCDs from your gross income in 2016. And if you file a joint return, your spouse (if 70½ or older) can exclude an additional $100,000 of QCDs. But you can’t also deduct these QCDs as a charitable contribution on your federal income tax return–that would be double dipping.

QCDs count toward satisfying any required minimum distributions (RMDs) that you would otherwise have to take from your IRA in 2016, just as if you had received an actual distribution from the plan. However, distributions (including RMDs) that you actually receive from your IRA and subsequently transfer to a charity cannot qualify as QCDs. For example, assume that your RMD for 2016 is $25,000. In June 2016, you make a $15,000 QCD to Qualified Charity A. You exclude the $15,000 QCD from your 2016 gross income. Your $15,000 QCD satisfies $15,000 of your $25,000 RMD. You’ll need to withdraw another $10,000 (or make an additional QCD) by December 31, 2016, to avoid a penalty.

You could instead take a distribution from your IRA and then donate the proceeds to a charity yourself, but this would be a bit more cumbersome and possibly more expensive. You’d include the distribution in gross income and then take a corresponding income tax deduction for the charitable contribution. But the additional tax from the distribution may be more than the charitable deduction due to IRS limits. QCDs avoid all this by providing an exclusion from income for the amount paid directly from your IRA to the charity–you don’t report the IRA distribution in your gross income, and you don’t take a deduction for the QCD. The exclusion from gross income for QCDs also provides a tax-effective way for taxpayers who don’t itemize deductions to make charitable contributions.



I have matured U.S. savings bonds. Are they still earning interest and, if not, can I roll them over to another savings bond?

Once U.S savings bonds have reached maturity, they stop earning interest. Prior to 2004, you could convert your Series E or EE savings bonds for Series HH bonds. This would have allowed you to continue earning tax-deferred interest. However, after August 31, 2004, the government discontinued the exchange of any form of savings bonds for HH bonds, so that option is no longer available.

Since matured savings bonds no longer earn interest, there is no financial benefit to holding on to them. If you have paper bonds, you can cash them in at most financial institutions, such as banks or credit unions. However, it’s a good idea to call a specific institution before going there to be sure it will redeem your bonds. As an alternative, you can mail them to the Treasury Retail Securities Site, PO Box 214, Minneapolis, MN 55480, where they will be redeemed. If you have electronic bonds, log on to and follow the directions there. The proceeds from your redeemed bonds can be deposited directly into your checking or savings account for a relatively quick turnover.

Another important reason to redeem your matured savings bonds may be because savings bond interest earnings, which can be deferred, are subject to federal income tax when the bond matures or is otherwise redeemed, whichever occurs first. So if you haven’t previously reported savings bond interest earnings, you must do so when the bond matures, even if you don’t redeem the bonds.

Using the money for higher education may keep you from paying federal income tax on your savings bond interest. The savings bond education tax exclusion permits qualified taxpayers to exclude from their gross income all or part of the interest paid upon the redemption of eligible Series EE and I bonds issued after 1989 when the bond owner pays qualified higher-education expenses at an eligible institution. However, there are very specific requirements that must be met in order to qualify, so consult with your tax professional.


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